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Hacking


Hacking is the deliberate infiltration or sabotaging of a computer or network of computers. Hackers use loopholes in computer security to gain control of a system, steal passwords and sensitive data, and/or incapacitate a computer or group of computers. Hacking is usually done remotely, by sending harmful commands and programs through the Internet to a target system. When they arrive, these commands and programs instruct the target system to operate outside of the parameters specified by the administrator of the system. This often causes general system instability or the loss of data.


Instant Messaging (IM)


IM is a communications service that allows two users to send messages through the Internet to each other in real-time. Users subscribe to a particular messaging service (e.g., AOL Instant Messenger, MSN Messenger) by supplying personal information and choosing a screen-name to use in connection with the service. When logged in to the IM service, users can search for other users based on the information that other users have supplied, and they can send those users messages or initiate a chat session. Most IM services also allow files to be transferred between users, including music, video files, and computer software. Due to the structure of the Internet, a transmission may be routed through different states and/or countries before it arrives at its final destination, even if the communicating parties are in the same state.


Internet

The Internet is a global network of computers and other electronic devices that communicate with each other via standard telephone lines, high-speed telecommunications links (e.g., fiber optic cable), and wireless transmissions. Due to the structure of the Internet, connections between devices on the Internet often cross state and international borders, even when the devices communicating with each other are in the same state.



Internet Relay Chat (IRC)


IRC is a popular Internet service that allows users to communicate with each other in real-time. IRC is organized around the "chat-room" or "channel," in which users congregate to communicate with each other about a specific topic. A "chat-room" typically connects users from different states and countries, and IRC messages often travel across state and national borders before reaching other users. Within a "chat-room" or "channel," every user can see the messages typed by other users.


No user identification is required for IRC, allowing users to log in and participate in IRC communication with virtual anonymity, concealing their identities by using fictitious "screen names."


Internet Service Providers ("ISPs")


Many individuals and businesses obtain their access to the Internet through businesses known as Internet Service Providers ("ISPs"). ISPs provide their customers with access to the Internet using telephone or other telecommunications lines; provide Internet e-mail accounts that allow users to communicate with other Internet users by sending and receiving electronic messages through the ISPs' servers; remotely store electronic files on their customers' behalf; and may provide other services unique to each particular ISP.

ISPs maintain records pertaining to the individuals or companies that have subscriber accounts with it. Those records could include identifying and billing information, account access information in the form of log files, e-mail transaction information, posting information, account application information, and other information both in computer data format and in written record format. ISPs reserve and/or maintain computer disk storage space on their computer system for the use of the Internet service subscriber for both temporary and long-term storage of electronic communications with other parties and other types of electronic data and files. E-mail that has not been opened is stored temporarily by an ISP incident to the transmission of the e-mail to the intended recipient, usually within an area known as the home directory. Such temporary, incidental storage is defined by statute as "electronic storage," and the provider of such a service is an "electronic communications service" provider. A service provider that is available to the public and provides storage facilities after an electronic communication has been transmitted and opened by the recipient, or provides other long term storage services to the public for electronic data and files, is providing a "remote computing service."



IP Address

The Internet Protocol address (or simply "IP" address) is a unique numeric address used by computers on the Internet. An IP address looks like a series of four numbers, each in the range 0-255, separated by periods (e.g., 121.56.97.178). Every computer attached to the Internet computer must be assigned an IP address so that Internet traffic sent from and directed to that computer may be directed properly from its source to its destination. Most Internet service providers control a range of IP addresses.


dynamic IP address When an ISP or other provider uses dynamic IP addresses, the ISP randomly assigns one of the available IP addresses in the range of IP addresses controlled by the ISP each time a user dials into the ISP to connect to the Internet. The customer's computer retains that IP address for the duration of that session (i.e., until the user disconnects), and the IP address cannot be assigned to another user during that period. Once the user disconnects, however, that IP address becomes available to other customers who dial in at a later time. Thus, an individual customer's IP address normally differs each time he dials into the ISP.


static IP address A static IP address is an IP address that is assigned permanently to a given user or computer on a network. A customer of an ISP that assigns static IP addresses will have the same IP address every time.


Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)


JPEG is the name of a standard for compressing digitized images that can be stored on computers. JPEG is often used to compress photographic images, including pornography. Such files are often identified by the ".jpg" extension (such that a JPEG file might have the title "picture.jpg") but can easily be renamed without the ".jpg" extension.


Log file

Log files are computer files that contain records about system events and status, the activities of users, and anomalous or unauthorized computer usage. Names for various log files include, but are not limited to: user logs, access logs, audit logs, transactional logs, and apache logs.



Moving Pictures Expert Group -3 (MP3)


MP3 is the name of a standard for compressing audio recordings (e.g., songs, albums, concert recordings) so that they can be stored on a computer, transmitted through the Internet to other computers, or listened to using a computer. Despite its small size, an MP3 delivers near CD-quality sound. Such files are often identified by the filename extension ".mp3," but can easily be renamed without the ".mp3" extension.


Packet Sniffing


On the Internet, information is usually transmitted through many different locations before it reaches its final destination. While in transit, such information is contained within "packets." Both authorized users, such as system security experts, and unauthorized users, such as hackers, use specialized technology - packet sniffers - to "listen" to the flow of information on a network for interesting packets, such as those containing logins or passwords, sensitive or classified data, or harmful communications such as viruses. After locating such data, the packet sniffer can read, copy, redirect, or block the communication.


Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks


P2P networks differ from conventional networks in that each computer within the network functions as both a client (using the resources and services of other computers) and a server (providing files and services for use by "peer" computers). There is often no centralized server in such a network. Instead, a search program or database tells users where other computers are located and what files and services they have to offer. Often, P2P networks are used to share and disseminate music, movies, and computer software.


Router

A router is a device on the Internet that facilitates communication. Each Internet router maintains a table that states the next step a communication must take on its path to its proper destination. When a router receives a transmission, it checks the transmission's destination IP address with addresses in its table, and directs the communication to another router or the destination computer. The log file and memory of a router often contain important information that can help reveal the source and network path of communications.



Server


A server is a centralized computer that provides services for other computers connected to it via a network. The other computers attached to a server are sometimes called "clients." In a large company, it is common for individual employees to have client computers at their desktops. When the employees access their e-mail, or access files stored on the network itself, those files are pulled electronically from the server, where they are stored, and are sent to the client's computer via the network. Notably, server computers can be physically stored in any location: it is common for a network's server to be located hundreds (and even thousands) of miles away from the client computers.

In larger networks, it is common for servers to be dedicated to a single task. For example, a server that is configured so that its sole task is to support a World Wide Web site is known simply as a "web server." Similarly, a server that only stores and processes e-mail is known as a "mail server."


Tracing


Trace programs are used to determine the path that a communication takes to arrive at its destination. A trace program requires the user to specify a source and destination IP address. The program then launches a message from the source address, and at each "hop" on the network (signifying a device such as a router), the IP address of that device is displayed on the source user's screen or copied to a log file.


User name or User ID


Most services offered on the Internet assign users a name or ID, which is a pseudonym that computer systems use to keep track of users. User names and IDs are typically associated with additional user information or resources, such as a user account protected by a password, personal or financial information about the user, a directory of files, or an e-mail address.

Virus



A virus is a malicious computer program designed by a hacker to (1) incapacitate a target computer system, (2) cause a target system to slow down or become unstable, (3) gain unauthorized access to system files, passwords, and other sensitive data such as financial information, and/or (4) gain control of the target system to use its resources in furtherance of the hacker's agenda.


Once inside the target system, a virus may begin making copies of itself, depleting system memory and causing the system to shut down, or it may begin issuing system commands or altering crucial data within the system.


Other malicious programs used by hackers are, but are not limited to: "worms" that spawn copies that travel over a network to other systems, "trojan horses" that are hidden in seemingly innocuous files such as e-mail attachments and are activated by unassuming authorized users, and "bombs" which are programs designed to bombard a target e-mail server or individual user with messages, overloading the target or otherwise preventing the reception of legitimate communications.


B. Background - Staleness Issue


It may be helpful and necessary to include a paragraph explaining how certain computer files can reside indefinitely in free or slack space and thus be subject to recovery with specific forensic tools:

Based on your affiant's knowledge, training, and experience, your affiant knows that computer files or remnants of such files can be recovered months or even years after they have been downloaded onto a hard drive, deleted or viewed via the Internet. Electronic files downloaded to a hard drive can be stored for years at little or no cost. Even when such files have been deleted, they can be recovered months or years later using readily-available forensics tools. When a person "deletes" a file on a home computer, the data contained in the file does not actually disappear; rather, that data remains on the hard drive until it is overwritten by new data. Therefore, deleted files, or remnants of deleted files, may reside in free space or slack space - that is, in space on the hard drive that is not allocated to an active file or that is unused after a file has been allocated to a set block of storage space - for long periods of time before they are overwritten. In addition, a computer's operating system may also keep a record of deleted data in a "swap" or "recovery" file. Similarly, files that have been viewed via the Internet are automatically downloaded into a temporary Internet directory or "cache." The browser typically maintains a fixed amount of hard drive space devoted to these files, and the files are only overwritten as they are replaced with more recently viewed Internet pages. Thus, the ability to retrieve residue of an electronic file from a hard drive depends less on when the file was downloaded or viewed than on a particular user's operating system, storage capacity, and computer habits.



C. Describe the Role of the Computer in the Offense


The next step is to describe the role of the computer in the offense, to the extent it is known. For example, is the computer hardware itself evidence of a crime or contraband? Is the computer hardware merely a storage device that may or may not contain electronic files that constitute evidence of a crime? To introduce this topic, it may be helpful to explain at the outset why the role of the computer is important for defining the scope of your warrant request.


Your affiant knows that computer hardware, software, and electronic files may be important to a criminal investigation in two distinct ways: (1) the objects themselves may be contraband, evidence, instrumentalities, or fruits of crime, and/or (2) the objects may be used as storage devices that contain contraband, evidence, instrumentalities, or fruits of crime in the form of electronic data. Rule 41 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure permits the government to search for and seize computer hardware, software, and electronic files that are evidence of crime, contraband, instrumentalities of crime, and/or fruits of crime. In this case, the warrant application requests permission to search and seize [images of child pornography, including those that may be stored on a computer]. These [images] constitute both evidence of crime and contraband. This affidavit also requests permission to seize the computer hardware that may contain [the images of child pornography] if it becomes necessary for reasons of practicality to remove the hardware and conduct a search off-site. Your affiant believes that, in this case, the computer hardware is a container for evidence, a container for contraband, and also itself an instrumentality of the crime under investigation.


1. When the Computer Hardware Is Itself Contraband, Evidence, And/or an Instrumentality or Fruit of Crime



If applicable, the affidavit should explain why probable cause exists to believe that the tangible computer items are themselves contraband, evidence, instrumentalities, or fruits of the crime, independent of the information they may hold.


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