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End Notes

1 Countries with market economies use Labor Force Surveys (LFS) as a main instrument of data collection on employment and unemployment. However, not all transition economies have implemented this statistical methodology. Countries that have already introduced an LFS include: Bulgaria, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, the Republic of Macedonia, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and Ukraine. Belarus, Croatia, and Moldova are preparing to launch such a survey (Chernyshev, 1997, pp. 32-33).


2 Some subsidized activities are also considered active labor market policies, particularly if they are intended to create new jobs.


3 This is a sign of Hungarian generosity, which is sometimes criticized. The length of the subsidy is longer than in Sweden and Germany (Frey, 1997, p. 106).


4 PHARE is an abbreviation for the European Community/Polish and Hungarian Aid to Reconstruction of the Economy (EC/PHARE) http://WWW.ERC.MsState.Edu/