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History of BB p


History of Basketball


In early December 1891, Luther Gulick, chairman of the physical education department at the School for Christian Workers(now Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, instructed physical education teacher James Naismith to invent a new game to entertain the school’s athletes during the winter season.


With an ordinary soccer ball, Naismith assembled his of 18 young men, appointed captains of two nine-player teams, and introduced them to the game of Basket Ball (then two words). Naismith, who had outlined 13 original rules, dispatched the school janitor to find two boxes to be fastened to the balcony railing at opposite sides of the gymnasium, where they would serve as goals. The school janitor, however only found two half-bushel peach baskets, and the game was played with these.


In Naismith’s original 13 rules, the ball could be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but it could not be dribbled because players could not move with the ball. Beginning in 1910 a player could dribble the ball, but could not shoot after dribbling. It was not until 1916, following heated debate, that players were allowed to shoot after dribbling


Court and Teams


While the dimensions of individual basketball courts vary, a playing area 84 feet long and 50 feet wide – predominantly used in recreational, high school and intercollegiate competition – is considered ideal for most players. Professional basketball courts are slightly larger, 94 feet long and 50 feet wide.

In addition to size, courts can vary in other ways, such as in the radius of the circle situated at the center of the court and in the distance of the 3 – point line (from beyond which a score counts for 3 points) from the basket. For example, the 3 – point line in high school and college games is 19 feet 9 inches from the basket, while in international play it is 21 feet 6 inches, and in the National Basketball Association (NBA) it extends as far as 23 feet 9 inches.



The backboards were originally used to prevent spectators from interfering with play. They are generally 4 feet by 6 feet and are connected to cast-iron rims, or baskets, that are 18 inches in diameter. Each basket has a white, nylon-mesh net 15 – 18 inches in length connected to iron loops on the rim. One of the most popular sports in the world, basketball is played by men and women of all ages and ability levels in more than 200 countries.


Play/Length of the Game


Whether basketball is played informally on playgrounds or in organized fashion in leagues, it is played with essentially the same set of rules, which have stayed generally consisitent wince the game’s invention in 1891. The game involves two five-player teams that play both offense and defense. There are five players – 2 guards, 2 forward, and 1 center. At the completion of each game, the team that has scored the most points wins. Recreational and high school games last 32 minutes (four quarter of 8 minutes each), college and international games last 40 minutes (two halves of 20 minutes each), and men’s professional games last 48 minutes (four quarter of 12 minutes each). When a game is tied after regulation time has ended, the teams play overtime periods until one team ends an overtime period with more points and is therefore the winner. The length of an overtime in a high school varsity contest is four minutes. Three 60-second time-outs and two 30-second time-outs may be charged to each team during a regulation high school game.


Collegiate National Championship

The NCAA, the NAIA, and the NJCAA all sponsor postseason national championship tournaments. The men’s and women’s Division I NCAA Championship basketball tournaments are the most high profile of these. They are also two of the premier sporting events in the United States. Both tournaments are held over three weeks in March and early April, using the same format to determine a national champion. Each tournament involves 64 teams in a single-elimination competition, meaning that one loss knocks a team from the tournament.



In the men’s tournament, the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) has won the championship 11 times, with John Wooden coaching UCLA to 10 of these victories. The University of Kentucky has won seven championships, and Indiana University has captured five.


The University of Tennessee and the University of Connecticut have dominated the women’s NCAA tournament. Coached by Pat Summit, Tennessee has won eight titles since the women’s tournament began in 1982. The University of Connecticut, coached by Geno Auriemma has won five national championships.


Fouling


Fouling is an infringement or breakage of the rule for which one or more free throws are awarded.

Blocking: an individual foul involving personal contact which impedes the progress of an opponent with or without the ball. A player may not enter the path of a moving player without giving that player a chance to stop or change direction.

Charging: a player with the ball moves into an opponent whose position is legal or whose path is already established.

Hacking: the player hits the arm or hand of the person holding the ball.

Holding: the player holds the person with or without the ball.


Free Throws


The free throw line is located in the middle of the lane 15 feet from the basket. The free throw lane is 12 feet wide. The basket is 10 feet high. A team shoots a one-and-one when the opposing team has been called for 7 team fouls. A double bonus (2 free throws) are awarded after 10 team fouls in a half. A player who is fouled in the act of shooting and makes the field goal is awarded one free throw. If a player is fouled in the act of shooting and misses the field goal, he is awarded two or three free throws depending on if the shot was a 2 or 3 point attempt.


Violations

An infringement for which the ball is put in play from out-of-bounds



Traveling: moving illegally without the ball resulting in moving one’s pivot foot.

Three-Second Lane Violation: a player without the ball remains in the free-throw lane more than 3 seconds while their team is in possession of the ball. If he/she receives the ball in less than 3 seconds, he has 3 additional seconds to shoot or get out of the lane.

Double Dribble: occurs when a player continues dribbling after grasping the ball with both hands

Held Ball: occurs when a player holds the ball more than 5 seconds when closely guarded.