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Bibliography


Automotive News. Weekly published in Detroit by Crain Publications. By far the largest business publication for the industry.

Flink, James J. The Automobile Age. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988.

Lewis, David L., and Laurence Goldstein, eds. The Automobile and American Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1983.

Maxton, Graeme P. and John Wormald. Time for a Model Change: Re-engineering the Global Automobile Industry. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Sloan, Alfred P. My Years with General Motors. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1963.

Womack, James P., Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos. The Machine That Changed the World: Based on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 5-million Dollar 5-year Study on the Future of the Automobile. New York: Rawson Associates, 1990.

Table 1: Broadly Defined Auto-Industry Employment, Japan, 2005

Total labor force







63,560,000

100.0%

Total automotive







4,802,000

7.6%


Manufacturing







952,000

1.5%




Assembly including trucks

208,000










Parts

611,000










Estimated indirect

133,000







Transport







2,492,000

3.9%




Freight

1,486,000











Passengers

585,000










Services

312,000










Other

109,000







Use







311,000

0.5%




Fueling

288,000









Finance and insurance


23,000







Sales and service







1,047,000

1.6%




Retailing

363,000










Servicing

333,000










Parts retailing

62,000










Used cars

102,000








Wholesaling

187,000







Sources:

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Motor Industry in Japan 2005, Tokyo: JAMA, 2006.

Table 2: Top 20 Finished Vehicle Producers, Calendar Year 2006




Total

Cars

Light commercial

Heavy and buses

1. Toyota1

10,332,279

8,213,712

1,353,159

765,408

2. General Motors2

8,926,160

5,708,038

3,156,888

61,234

3. Ford Motors3

7,664,605

4,606,252

3,097,294

84,041

4. Nissan-Renault


5,715,842

4,598,356

976,769

140,717

5. VW4

5,684,603

5,429,896

219,537

35,170

6. Hyundai-Kia

3,843,800

3,413,190

198,026

232,584

7. Honda

3,669,514

3,549,787

119,724

0

8. PSA (Peugeot-Citroen)

3,356,859

2,961,437

395,422

0

9. Chrysler5

2,544,590

710,291

1,834,299

0

10. Fiat

2,317,652


1,753,673

450,544

113,435

11. Suzuki

2,297,277

2,004,310

292,967

0

12. DaimlerChrysler5

2,044,533

1,275,152

378,278

391,103

13. BMW

1,366,838

1,266,838

0

0

14. Mitsubishi Motors

1,313,409

1,008,970

296,431

8,008

15. Avtovaz (Russia)

765,627

765,627

0

0

16. Tata (India)

561,081

190,468


196,389

174,224

17. Chang’an Auto (China)6

522,757

446,692

76,065

0

18. FAW Group (China)6

479,318

393,754

45,790

39,774

19. Beijing Auto (China)6

373,593

297,528

76,065

0

20. Geely (China)6

207,149

207,149

0

0

Sources:

Reclassified into groups by the author from Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs D’automobiles (OICA) data. Other sources, such at the Automotive News 2007 Global Market Data Book, vary slightly, depending on the allocation of production among joint venture partners (particularly in China).

Notes:

1. Toyota includes Daihatsu, Hino, Isuzu, FHI (Subaru), and Isuzu, which was bought from GM in 2006.


2. General Motors includes Opel, Vauxhall, Saab, and GM-Daewoo.

3. Ford Motors includes Mazda, Volvo, and others.

4. VW includes Audi, SEAT, and Skoda.

5. DaimlerChrysler sold a majority stake in Chrysler to Cerberus Capital Management effective August 3, 2007. While the former retains a 19.9% stake, the firms are independently operated and are reported separately here.

6. The data for Chinese firms do not include joint-venture production.



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