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за кордоном; теоретичні положення перекладознавчтва як бази для практичних вмінь і - навичок перекладу;знати: сучасний стан науки про переклад в Україні і
It is worthwhile to begin lectures on translation with a short introduction to the phenomenon of language, since not knowing the relationship between language and extralinguistic world one can hardly properly understand translation.
The relation of language to the extralinguistic world involves three basic sets of elements: language signs, mental concepts and parts of the extralinguistic world (not necessarily material or physically really existing) which are usually called denotata.
The language sign is a sequence of sounds (in spoken language) or symbols (in written language) which is associated with a single concept in the minds of speakers of that or another language.
The signs of language are associated with particular mental concepts only in the minds of the speakers of this language. Thus, vrouw, Frau, femeie, kobieta are the language signs related to the concept of a woman in Dutch, German, Romanian and Polish, respectively. It is important to note that one can relate these signs to the concept of a woman if and only if he or she is a speaker of the relevant language or knows these words.
Language signs are a kind of construction elements of which a language is built.
The mental concept is an array of mental images and associations related to a particular part of the extralinguistic world (both really existing and imaginary), on the one hand, and connected with a particular language sign, on the other. The most important fact, however, to be always born in mind in translation is that the relation between words (language signs) and parts of the extralinguistic world (denotata) is only indirect and going through the mental concepts. For example, to take an extreme case, in English speech one will never find two articles in a row or in an official obituary an English speaker will never say that the minister pegged out. An evident example of grouping by meaning and association gives the group of colors in which even a little child will easily include black, red, blue, etc. One may note that one and the same word may belong to different levels and different paradigms, i.e. the language paradigms are fuzzy sets with common elements. As an example, consider the lexico-semantic paradigm of colors the elements of which (black, white, etc.) also belong to the syntactic paradigms of Attributes and Nouns. Adjective Cases Paradigm none род. відм.
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