The usual types of replacements are the substitution of a simple sentence by a complex one and vice versa; of the principal clause by a subordinate one and vice versa; the replacement of subordination by coordination and vice versa; the replacement of asyndeton by polysyndeton and vice versa. These kinds of replacements are often caused by the existence of various complexes and structures in the English language, e.g.
I saw him cross the street and buy a newspaper.
Я бачив, як він перейшов вулицю і купив газету.
A simple sentence is replaced by a complex one.
Marsel Daussault, the airplane manufacturer who is said to be the richest man in France had defrauded the government of $ 300 million in taxes.
Марсель Дассо, власник автобудівельної компанії, котрий, як кажуть, є найзаможнішою людиною у Франції, обікрав уряд, не сплативши 300 мільйонів доларів податків.
Simple sentences containing infinitive complexes are usually translated by complex sentences.
A simple sentence with an absolute participle or a nominative absolute construction is usually rendered by a subordinate or coordinate complex sentence.
Withthe fog rolling awayand the sun shining out of a sky of icy blue the trevellers started on the leg of their climb. (Trevanian)
Коли туманпіднявся і сонце засяяло на холодному блакитному небі, альпіністи почали останній етап свого підйому.
It should also be noted that the type of the subordinate clause may be changed on the strength of usage.
She glanced at Brendon, where he sat on a chair across her. (W.Deeping).
Вона подивилася на Брендона, котрий сидів на стільці проти неї.
The adverb “where” probably does not function here as an adverb of place but rather as a word qualifying the sitter.
Apart from replacing a simple sentence by a subordinated or coordinated complex sentence it can also be replaced by two or more simple sentences. It is especially practiced in the translation of the so-called “leads”. A lead is the first sentence of news-in-brief which contains the main point of the information. It usually coincides with the first paragraph and is usually divided into two or more sentences in translation.
Thousands of Algerians tonight fled from the “dead city” of Orleanswille after a twelve-second earthquake had ripped through central Algeria, killing an estimated 1,100 people.
1. Тисячі мешканців тікали сьогодні вночі з „мертвого міста” Орлеанвіля, рятуючись від землетрусу, що тривав дванадцять секунд.
2. Землетрусстався у центральних районах Алжиру.
3. За попередніми даними загинуло 1.100 чоловік.
On the other hand a complex sentence may by replaced by a simple one.
It was at the 5th Congress that the Great Russian writer Maxim Gorky met Lenin for the first time.
Великий російський письменник Максим Горький вперше зустрівся з Леніним на 5 з’їзді партії.
He could not say anything unless he was prompted. (Taylor Caldwell).
Без підказки він не міг і слова промовити.
The tendency towards compression both in the grammatical and the lexical systems of the English language often makes additions necessary and indispensable. Much has already been said about additions that accompany transpositions and replacements. This is particularly true in the translation of infinitive, participle and gerundial complexes. There are other cases when additions are caused by compressed structures such as the absolute possessive, attributes formed by juxtaposition N1 + N2 structures and by attributive groups.
The model N1 + N2 often requires additions in translation: riot police – спеціальнізагониполіціїдляпридушеннявуличнихзаворушень; death vehicle – автомашина, що вбилаперехожого, bare beaches – пляжи, гдеможнакупатисябезкостюмів.
Sometimes additions are required by pragmatic considerations: pay claim – вимога підвищеннязаробітноїплати, welfare cuts – урізаннябюджетнихасигнованьнасоціальніпотреби; herring ban – забороналовитиоселедецьуПівнічномуморі.
Attributive groups are another case in point. The elements forming such groups vary in number, their translation into Ukrainian as a rule requires additions, e.g. oil thirsty Europe – Європа, що зазнаєбракнафти; Jobs-for-youth Club – клуб, що ставить за метузабезпечитимолодьроботою.
A handful of dates and a cup of coffee habit (J.Galsworthy)
Звичка харчуватися горсткою фініків і чашкою кави.
Attributive groups present great variety because of the number and character of the component elements. The main task facing the translator is to establish their semantic and syntactic relations with the word they modify, e.g.
Three Nicosia Greek language newspapers – Три газети на грецькій мові, що виходять у Нікозії.
The decoding of an attributive group, however, does not always involve additions, but merely transpositions and replacements, e.g.
A million pound forged bank draft fraud – Афера з підробленим векселем на мільйон фунтів стерлінгів.
Additions are also caused by discrepancy in the use of the plural and singular forms of certain nouns.
Delegates from various industries – представники різних галузей промисловості.
Additions are not infrequently caused by lexical reasons. A single instance may suffice here as the problem will be considered at length in the following chapter. Additions are indispensable in the translation of verbs which bring forth in some context two semes simultaneously.
…Mr Ames complained his way outof bed … and went to the door.
Містер Еймз, крекчучи, виліз із ліжка і поплентав до вхідної двері.
Another cause of additions is English word building, e.g. conversation and the use of some non-equivalent suffixes.
We showered and dressed.
Ми прийняли душ і вдяглися.
He is a chancer.
Він людина, яка не любить ризикувати.
Some lexical or structural elements of the English sentence may be regarded as redundant from the point of view of translation as they are not consonant with the norms and usage of the Ukrainian language, e.g.
For the fishermen of Rebun, the notion that young outsiders may choose to adopt their way of life is both fascinating and perplexing.
Рибалкам острову Ребун здається дивним і незвичайним, що приїжджа молодь може віддати перевагу їх способу життя.
Two omissions have been made here. The meaning of the word “notion” is implied in the predicate of the Ukrainian sentence and this word can safely be left out. The verb “to choose” and “to adopt” may be regarded as synonymous and the meaning of these two verbs is fully covered by the Ukrainian віддати перевагу which implies choice.
Some typical cases of redundancy may be mentioned here: synonymous pairs, the use of weights and measures with emphatic intent, subordinate clauses of time and place.
Homogeneous synonymous pairs are used in different styles of the language. Their use is traditional and can be explained by extra-linguistic reasons: the second member of the pair of Anglo-Saxon origin was added to make clear the meaning of the first member borrowed from the French language, e.g. my sire and father. Itwas done as O.Jespersen writes in his book “Growth and Structure of the English language” “…for the benefit of those who were refined expression”. Gradually synonymous pairs have become a purely stylistic device. They are often omitted in translation even in official documents as pleonastic, e.g.
Equality of treatment in trade and commerce. – Рівні можливості в торгівлі.
The purposes of the Western Powers in pouring arms into Israel have been open and unconcealed.
Західні держави ніколи не приховували своїх цілей, поставляючи зброю Ізраїлю.
The broadest definition is that the Arctic is the region of permafrost or permanently frozen subsoil.
Найширше визначення Арктики – це область вічної мерзлоти.
Words denoting measures and weights are frequently used in describing people or abstract notions. They are either omitted or replaced in translation.
Every inch of his face expressed amazement. (P.G.Wodehouse).
На йоего обличчі було написане здивування.
He extracted every ounce of emotion from Rachmaninov’s Third Concerto.
Він показав усю емоційність Третього концерту Рахманінова.
Subordinate clauses of time and of place are frequently felt to be redundant in Ukrainian and are omitted in translation.
The storm was terrific while it lasted.
Буря була жахливою.
The grammatical structure of any language is as important as its word-stock or vocabulary. Grammatical meanings are no less significant than lexical meaning as they express such fundamental categories as tense relations, gender, number, modality, categories of definiteness and indefiniteness, etc. Some of these categories may be expressed grammatically in different ways owing to the existence of grammatical synonymy. But sometimes they can also be expressed lexically.
The main translation principle should never be lost sight of – what is expressed in another, generally by means of transformations.
Lecture 5. STYLISTIC PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION
1. Different aspects of stylistic problems
2. Official style
3. Scientific prose style
4. Newspaper and publicistic styles
5. Rendering of form in translating emotive prose
6. National character of stylistic systems
7. Polyfunctional character of stylistic devices
8. Rendering of trite and original devices
9. Original metaphors and their translation
10. Original metonymies and their translation
11. Transferred epithet and its translation
12. Violation of phraseological units and its rendering
13. Foregrounding and translation
1. Different Aspects of Stylistic Problems
Stylistic problems of translation may be approached from several angles: styles of language, their peculiarities, their goals and their interrelation; stylistic meaning of words; stylistic devices, their nature and structure, their expressive function; foregrounding of linguistic means for stylistic purposes and its attention-compelling function.
The translation of texts belonging to different functional styles of the language presents a vast comprehensive problem.
A style of language is dependent upon the sphere of communication and the aim of communication which determine the peculiar choice of language means. These means are interrelated and form a system is characteristic of each style. Texts belonging to different styles of language possess distinctive stylistic features and thus are easily recognizable although they may to some extent vary from language to language. These features can be classified as leading or subordinate, obligatory or optional. The leading or dominant features form a common core in the S and T languages. They are reflected in the composition of each text, in its syntactic structure, in the choice of linguistic means and stylistic devices. The same means naturally occur in different styles but their use and functions are different.
2. Official style
Official style is a sub-system of the language, a form of communication functioning in the sphere of official relations. The aim of communication in this stile is to reach agreement between two or more contracting parties. The term of such agreements must be formulated clearly and unambiguously in order to exclude any possibility of misinterpretation. Consequently this style is characterized by the use of words in their direct referential meaning and by the absence of words of emotive meaning. Another outstanding feature of this style is the abundance of special terms, clichés and set expressions of a special nature which make this style distinct from other styles and easily recognizable. Some of them have their counterparts in the target language are to be used by the translator, e.g.
The Security Council shall, where appropriate, utilize such regional arrangements or agencies for enforcement action under its authority. (Charter of the United Nations, article 53).
Рада безпеки використовує, де це доцільно, такі регіональні угоди або органи для примусових дій під її керівництвом.
The corresponding Ukrainian text is very close to the English text. Yet in three cases there is no formal correspondence due to morphological and syntactical factors:
The special form “shall + infinitive” (shall utilize), typical of official style, corresponds to the Present indicative (використовує) – its Ukrainian counterpart in official style.
The parenthetical phrase “where appropriate” precedes the notional verb (utilize) while in Ukrainian it comes after the verb використовує.
The attributive combination N1 + N2 (enforcement action) has its counterpart “an adjective + noun group” – примусових дій.
In accordance with the aim of communication the translation of official documents requires utmost precision. Equivalence in the rendering of form is to a considerable extent ensured by the existence of correlated SL and TL patterns, but it cannot be achieved at the expense of the Ukrainian language. For example, synonymous pairs which have an age-long tradition in literary English are also frequently used in official style: the treaty was declared null and void; just and equitable treatment; in good and due form, etc. such use of synonymous pairs in official documents is not so widespread in Ukrainian official stile as they are regarded as pleonastic and therefore they are commonly translated by one word: угода була оголошенанедійсною, справедливевідношення, уналежнійформі.