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Partial Equivalence



SL and TL grammatical forms hardly ever coincide fully. The scope of their meaning and their functions and usage generally differ, therefore these forms are mostly partial equivalents.

The category of number in English and in Ukrainian is a casein point. Most often the use of the singular and the plural in the two languages coincides. But divergences in the use of the singular and the plural appear in the first place in the so-called Singularia and Pluralia Tantum, that is, in those nouns which have either only a singular or a plural form, e.g. gate – ворота, ink – чорнила, money – гроші, and vice versa: gallows – шибениця, news – новини. Sometimes a countable noun in English and in Ukrainian, E.G. talent – talents; талант – таланти develops a new LSV (lexical-semantic variant) which is used as an uncountable noun.

Abstract nouns are more often used in the plural in English than in Ukrainian, e.g.


The struggles of many sections of the U.S. population against the war-lovers in America have grown to a height never reached before.

Боротьба багатьох верств населення Сполучених Штатів проти прибічників війни досягла нечуваного розмаху.


Allende’s political skills made him four times candidate for the presidency.

Політичний досвід Альєнде забезпечив чотирикратне висування його кандидатури на пост президента.


Sometimes different usage prevents a strict observance of he category of number in translation, e.g.


The right to work is ensured by the democratic organization of the national economy, the growth of the productive forces and the elimination of crisis and unemployment.

Право на труд забезпечується демократичною організацією народного господарства, зростом продуктивних сил і відсутністю криз та безробіття.



The plural form in Ukrainian (криз) achieves the required degree of generalization.

There is also a tendency in English o use nouns like “eye, “cheek”, “lip”, “ear”, “limb”, etc. in the singular, e.g.


He always thought of her as seventeen or so, clean of limb, beautiful of feature and filled with the impatience for life. (R. Wilder).

Він завжди уявляв собі її якою вона була років сімнадцяти – красиві риси обличчя, стрункі ноги і нестримна жага до життя.


The noun “limb” can also be rendered metonymically – ваблива фігура.

There is also a considerable difference between the use of the Passive voice in English and in Ukrainian. The English language allows different types of passive constructions and there are a number of verbs in English which can be used in the passive voice while the correlated verbs in Ukrainian cannot. For example, many English verbs are used both as transitive and intransitive.


Original samples of Paris clothing have been flown to London to illustrate lectures to the fashion industry.

Нові моделі паризьких туалетів було доставлено літаком до Лондону для показу під час лекцій представникам англійських домів моделей.


English verbs with a prepositional object are also used in the passive voice, a construction non-existing in Ukrainian.


Lovers if familiar symphonic fares are catered for with two Brahms symphonies and First Piano Concerto by Beethoven.

Прихильників часто виконуваної симфонічної музики в нинішньому сезоні частують двома симфоніями Брамса і Першим фортепіанним концертом Бетховена.

The impersonal passive with a preposition is translated by an impersonal construction.



The increase in the family allowances that was widely hoped for has come to nothing.

Збільшення допомоги багатодітним сім’ям, на яку всі так розраховували, не здійснилося.


Verbs formed by conversion present great difficulties in translation especially when used in the Passive.


The roads were sentinelled by oaks. (Clemance Dane).

По краях дороги, немов вартові, стояли дуби.


Its picturesqueness is rendered by a simile which makes the translation semantically and stylistically equivalent.

The desire for giving prominence to some element of the utterance, often accounts for the use of the passive form in English. As the word order is Subject-Predicate-Object and as stylistic inversion is relatively infrequent because of its expressive value, the Passive is naturally used. The tendency is particularly marked in newspaper style.


Fears are expressed that the North Sea could be fished out of herring.

Висловлюються остороги, що з Північного моря можуть виловити весь оселедець.


Verbals – the Infinitive and the Participles. Though these categories also exist in Ukrainian there are considerable difficulties in their forms and their use: the English Infinitive has Perfect and Continuous forms which are absent in the Ukrainianlanguage, whereas these verbals in the Ukrainianlanguage have perfective and imperfective aspects, non-existent in English. There are infinitive and participle complexes in Englishwhich have no counterparts in Ukrainian.


The Infinitive. Nominative with the infinitive (the infinitive as a secondary predicate).

Oil consumption has increased by 4 per cent and the increase is expected to go up to 5 per cent.

Споживання нафти зросло на 4 відсотки і очікується, що воно сягне 5 відсотків.


The infinitive complex is rendered by two clauses.

The Infinitive complex with the preposition “for”.

That was an odd thing for him to do. (G.Grene).

Дивно, що він так вчинив.

The infinitive complex is translated by a subordinate clause.

The Infinitive used as attribute

Supporters of outright independence for Puerto Rico fared poorly in the election – but remained a force to contend with.

Прибічники негайного надання незалежності Пуерто Ріко зібрали незначну кількість голосів на виборах, але вони все ж являють собою силу, з якою треба буде рахуватися.

Here too, the infinitive is translated by a subordinate attributive clause comprising the infinitive itself.

The Infinitive of subsequent action

Throughout 1937 term after team after team attacked the Eiger, only to be driven back. (Trevanian).

Протягом всього 1937 року одна група альпіністів за іншою намагалися здійснити підйом на вершину Єгер, і кожного разу вони були змушені відступати.

The Infinitive is rendered in this case by a coordinate clause.


The Participle as Part of an Absolute Construction


There were widespread R.A.F. strikes throughout India, Ceylon and the Middle East with the Airforce rank and file demanding speedier demobilization.

В Індії, на Цейлоні і Середньому Сході прокотилася хвиля страйків рядових службовців Королівських Військово-повітряних сил, які вимагали прискорити демобілізацію.


3. Partial Equivalents caused by different usage

Partial equivalents are also caused by different syntactical usage. The priority of Syntax due to the analytical character of the English language is reflected in a number of features firmly established in it by usage. Chief among them are: the use of homogeneous members which are logically incompatible, a peculiar use of parentheses, the morphological expression of the subject in the principal and the subordinate clauses, etc.


Without pomp and circumstance, N.A.T.O. closed its Paris head-quarters on Friday evening. The building which has housed the Secretariat and the 15 delegations for some 10 years has been rapidly emptying of furniture and staff.

У п’ятницю в вечорі без всякої пишноти й церемоній закрилася штаб-квартира НАТО в Парижі. Будівля, в якій протягом 10 років розташовувались секретаріат і делегації 15 держав, швидко спустошилась – з неї вивезли меблі й виїхали всі співпрацівники.


The meaning of the verb “has been emptying of” is rendered in Ukrainian by three verbs in conformity with the norm and usage of Ukrainian language valency:

будівля спустошилась, меблі вивезли, співпрацівники виїхали.

A parenthetical phrase or clause sometimes breaks up the logical flow of the sentence which is common English as the relations between the members of the sentence are clear due to the priority of syntax. But such use necessitates a recasting of the Ukrainian sentence; the parenthetical clause must be placed where it logically belongs to, sometimes even forming a separate sentence.

The Justice Party in Turkey has taken part in a coalition, and on another occasion its leader has been asked – but failed – to form a government.

Партія Справедливості в Терції одного разу приймала участь у коаліційному уряді, а другого разу лідеру партії було запропоновано сформувати уряд, але це йому не вдалося.

The subordinate clause is translated by an attributive participle group to avoid the use of a second subject.


4. Free and Bound Use of Grammar Forms

Grammatical forms are generally used freely according to their own meaning and their use is determined by purely linguistic factors, such as rules of agreement, syntactic construction, etc. in such cases their use is not free but bound. For example, in English the singular or the plural form of a noun preceded by a numeral depends upon the number of things counted: one table, twenty one tables; in Ukrainian the agreement depends on the last numeral: один стіл, двадцять пять столів. The rule of sequence of Tenses is another case in point: the use of the tense in the English subordinate clause is bound. If the past Tense is used in the principal clause, the Past or the Future-in-the-Past must be used in the subordinate clause instead of the Present or of the Future, e.g. He says that he speaks English – він каже, що знає английську; he said that he spoke English –віон сказав, что він говорить английською.


This purely formal rule of the sequence of tenses does not find its reflection in translation as no such rule exists in Ukrainian and the use of the tense form in the dependent clause is free and is determined by the situation.

It should be borne in mind that in reported speech – in newspaper articles, in minutes, in reports and records – this rule of the sequence of tenses is observed through the text: the sequences are governed by the Past Tense of the initial sentence – he said, it was reported, they declared, he stressed, etc.

To conclude, only free forms are rendered in translation and bound forms require special attention.


5. Types of grammatical transformations


As has been said, divergences in the structures of the two languages are so considerable that in the process of translation various grammatical and lexical transformations indispensable to achieve equivalence. These transformations may be classed into four types: 1) transpositions; 2) replacements; 3) additions; 4) omissions. This classification, however, should be applied with reservation. In most cases they are combined with one another, moreover, grammatical and lexical elements in a sentence are so closely interwoven that one change involves another, e.g.


As they leave Washington, the four foreign ministers will be traveling together by plane.

Усі чотири міністри закордонних справ летітимуть з Вашингтону разом.


The following types of transformations have been resorted to in the translation of this complex sentence:

1. The complex sentence is translated by a simple one (replacement of sentence type);

2. The word order is changed (transposition);

3. The subordinate clause of time is rendered by an adverbial modifier of place (replacement of member of the sentence);

4. The meaning of the predicate and of the adverbial modifier is rendered by the predicate (both lexical and grammatical transformations – replacement and omission);


5. The meaning of the definite article is rendered lexically (addition).

The above analysis shows that all the four types of transformations are used simultaneously and are accompanied by lexical transformations as well.


Transpositions

Transposition may be defined as a change in the order of linguistic elements: words, phrases, clauses and sentences. Their order in the TL text may not correspond to that in the SL text.

This change of order is necessary to preserve fully the content of the utterance while observing the norms of the TL.

In considering the universal categories of definiteness and indefiniteness mention has been made of the two main parts of the sentence from the point of view of communication, viz. the known (theme) and new (rheme) elements of the utterance and their respective place in English and in Ukrainian sentences. It should also be noted that the traditional word order in English is Subject – Predicate – Object – Adverbial modifiers while the common tendency in Ukrainian is to place adverbial modifiers at the beginning of the sentence to be followed by the predicate and the subject at the end, e.g.


Strikes broke out in many British industries.

У ряді галузей промисловості Великобританії спалахнули страйки.


Transposition can also be effected within a complex sentence. The arrangement of clauses in English is often governed by syntactical hierarchy, whereas in Ukrainian precedence is taken by logical considerations, e.g.


He started back and fell against the railings, trembling as he looked up.

(W.M.Thackeray).

Поглянувши вгору, він здригнувся, відскочив і, весь тремтячий, прихилився до огорожі.


Replacements

The substitution of parts of speech is a common and most important type of replacements. Every word functions in the language as a member of a certain grammatical clause, that is, as a distinct part of speech: noun, verb, adjective or adverb. But the S and T languages do not necessarily have correlated words belonging to the same grammatical class. In such cases replacements or replacements + additions are necessary, e.g.



an early bedder – людина, яка рано лягає спати;

to cutvote somebody – отримати більше голосів на виборах, ніж …

The Times wrote editorially…- У передовиці газета Таймс писала…


The adverb is translated by a noun modified by an adjective.

A frequent use of nominal and phrase predicates with the key notion expressed by a noun or an adjective often results in the replacement of a noun by a verb.


A professor of Essex University was critical of the Government social security policy.

Професор Ессекського університету критикував урядову політику соціального забезпечення.


Semantically link verbs are highly diversified. Sometimes it is hard to draw a clear demarcation line between a nominal predicate and a case of secondary predication.

The door at the end of the corridor sighed open and sighed shut again.

(G.H.Cox).

Двері у кінці коридору ледве чутно відчинилися і знову ледве чутно зачинилися.


A phrase predicate is replaced by a verbal predicate.

Adjectives derived from geographical names are usually replaced by nouns as such Ukrainianadjectives evidently tend to express some permanent characteristic trait but not a temporary one, e.g.


Chilean copper – чілійська мідна руда but Chilean atrocities – звірства в Чілі.


Degrees of comparison also sometimes cause replacements. Such adjectives in the comparative degree as more, less, higher, lower, shorter, etc. are often translated by other parts of speech.

More letter bombs have been rendered harmless.


Було знешкоджено ще кілька листів з бомбами.

Another linguistic phenomenon which frequently causes replacements in translation is the use of nouns denoting inanimate things, abstract notions, natural phenomena and parts of the body as subjects – agents of the action.


Election year opens on in America which is more divided and bitter than at any time in recent history.

Цього року відбуватимуться вибори в Америці, яка ще ніколи не була такою роз’єднаною й розлюченою.


As a matter of fact the subject in such constructions is purely formal. Actually it expresses adverbial relations of time, place, cause, etc.

Parts of the sentence often change their syntactical function in translation thus causing a complete or partial reconstruction of the sentence by means of replacements.


The White House correspondents have largely been beaten into submission by the President.

Президент брутальним натиском змусив підкоритися більшість кореспондентів при Білому Домі.



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